The first memorials to the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks began to take shape online, as hundreds of webmasters posted their own thoughts, links to the Red Cross, and other rescue agencies, photos and eyewitness accounts. Numerous online September 11 memorials began appearing a few hours after the attacks, although many of these memorials were only temporary.

Around the world, U.S. embassies and consulates became makeshift memorials as people came out to pay their respects. Many U.S. ambassadors have said that they will never forget the outpouring of people as they showed their sympathy to the American people and their opposition to terrorism.

The Tribute in Light was the first major physical memorial at the World Trade Center site. A permanent memorial and museum, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center site are planned, as part of the design by overall WTC site redevelopment. The Memorial will consist of two massive pools set within the original footprints of the Twin Towers with 30-foot waterfalls cascading downt their sides. The names of the victims of the attacks will be inscribed around the edges of the waterfalls.

One of the places that had many memorials and candlelight vigils was Pier A in Hoboken, New Jersey, where many people saw the events of September 11 (Pier A had a good view of the World Trade Center.) There was also a memorial service on March 11, 2002, at dusk on Pier A when the Tribute in Light first turned on, marking the half-year anniversary of the terrorist attack. A permanent September 11 memorial for Hoboken, called Hoboken Island, was chosen in September 2004.

The first anniversary of the September 11, 2001 attacks brought numerous memorials and services.

Eighty-one streets in New York City, mostly in Staten Island, were renamed after victims.

George Clooney arranged a televised benefit concert called America: A Tribute to Heroes which aired ten days after the attacks.

Vigils and services Edit

In New York City, candlelight vigils were held across the city on Wednesday night (September 12) and Friday night (September 14) at 7:00 p.m.

In Washington, DC, several thousand citizens marched in a candlelight procession through the Adams Morgan district, through Dupont Circle, past dozens of embassies and onto the National Mall, where they joined additional thousands of their fellow citizens holding vigil over The Pentagon, just across the Potomac River.

In the UK, in a break with the long-standing procedures at Buckingham Palace, the Queen ordered the Changing of the Guard to be paused for a two minute silence on September 13, followed by the playing of the American national anthem (On June 4, 2002, to mark the Golden Jubilee celebrations for the Queen, New York City lit the Empire State Building in purple and gold, thanking the queen for having the American national anthem played). A memorial service was held in Saint Paul's Cathedral, London, attended by the Queen and politicians on September 14. A three minute silence at noon Paris time was held throughout Europe on the fourteenth. The Rev. Billy Graham led a service at Washington National Cathedral, [2] with President George W. Bush, past and present leaders, and other politicians in attendance. Bush spoke, beginning with the memorable phrase, "We are here in the middle hour of our grief." A similar memorial service was mounted on Parliament Hill in Canada, presided over by Governor General Adrienne Clarkson, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, and U.S. Ambassador Paul Cellucci, and which over 100,000 people attended. The service included 3 minutes of silence across Canada at 12:20 p.m., ET. When Bush made his visit to Canada in 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin said that the service on Parliament Hill was the largest single vigil ever seen in the nation's capital.[3]

Vigils and memorial services continued to be held in the following days. On Sunday the families of the victims of the crash of United Airlines flight 93 gathered at the crash site in Pennsylvania for a private ceremony, then joined in a service attended by governor Tom Ridge and First Lady Laura Bush. [4]

Church services are held across the United States and much of the world.[5]

On October 4, a memorial Mass was held in St. Patrick's Cathedral for NYFD captain Terence Hatton; Mayor Rudolf Giuliani and Governor George Pataki were attendance. A service was also held in Madison Square Garden for the 74 employees of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey who were missing and presumed dead.

At 11 AM: Blessing of the Animals

Special service dedicated to the World Trade Center search and rescue teams at the Church of the Resurrection, 119 East 74th Street, free (212.879.4320). Service began at 11; blessing at 12:30 p.m.. A memorial was constructed and then set ablaze at the Playa del Fuego event on the October 19-October 21 weekend.[6]

At noon on November 29, a national memorial service was held at Westminster Abbey in London, attended by relatives of the British dead, and broadcast on UK television and radio.

On May 28, the last steel beam standing at the site was cut down and placed on a flatbed truck in a quiet ceremony.

On September 11, 2002 an eternal flame was lit in Battery Park by Mayor Bloomberg, accompanied by delegates from over 90 countries.

First Anniversary Edit

On September 11, 2002, various memorials and services across the world marked the first anniversary of the attacks, the greatest number being in Manhattan. Church bells tolled at 8:46 am, when the first plane struck, and 10:29 am, when the second tower fell. Churches and other public spaces were open the entire day.

Remembrance services were held throughout the USA.

September 2002, Two women stop to read the names of the victims lost at Ground Zero.The ceremony at New York, broadcast throughout the world, fell an hour behind schedule, but was well attended. The ceremony included the reading out of the names of all the persons who died there (on both the planes and the World Trade Center) and the recitals of American historical speeches such as the Gettysburg Address. Moments of silence were observed at 8:46 AM and 9:03 AM, the moments when the two planes struck the two towers, and church bells rang at 10:29 AM, the moment at which the second tower collapsed. The names were read by various dignitaries, including former mayors Rudy Giuliani, who started the reading of the names, and David Dinkins, actor Robert De Niro, and Secretary of State Colin Powell.

The private ceremony at the Pentagon was also well-attended, and included the President among its participants. A prayer was said at the end that referred to Todd Beamer's "Let's Roll" remark.

The public ceremony at Shanksville also had a large turnout. It included two flybys and a release of doves. President George W. Bush attended a private follow up service for the families of Flight 93's victims in the afternoon.

Bush then went to New York and met with relatives of the victims at Ground Zero to pay his respects, as did his wife, Laura. That evening, he would address the nation from Ellis Island.

Powell, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan, and Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien led foreign dignitaries who gathered in Battery Park for the lighting of the eternal flame there at sunset. Bush addressed the nation about an hour and a half after the ceremony ended.

However, ceremonies and services commemorating were disrupted by a violent windstorm mainly in the New York City area, as a result of a hurricane's tail end. Numerous power outages occurred around the northeast and many people were not able to watch the television coverage.

Fifth Anniversary Edit

On September 11, 2006, the fifth anniversary of the terrorist attacks was observed. While some chose to mourn, protests were also observed at some of the memorials, most noticeably at the World Trade Center, in NYC.

At the World Trade Center, the names of the victims were read in alphabetical order, by the family members of the victims.[8]

By the PATH station, there were a mix of protesters and mourners. While some chose to mourn and remember attacks, some demonstrated their feelings, in forms of dance, paintings, therapy or speeches. Many heated arguments broke out between attendees, ranging from the political to the personal, only aggravated by the emotional nature of the memorial. In a few incidents, police intervention was required.

Physical memorials Edit

A 9/11 memorial hand-painted on a NYCTA bus following repairs after it was severely damaged in the World Trade Center collapse. On the rear is Never Forget--9-11-01. Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery for victims of the September 11th, 2001, terrorist attack on the Pentagon. September 11 Memorial at the Texas State CemeteryImpromptu memorials are put up at Washington Square, with hundreds of candles and flowers, and Union Square, where people write messages on large rolls of paper taped to the ground amidst candles, including a 6 feet (1.8 m) high concrete candle. A mural is spray-painted on a wall in the Lower East Side. In the coming days the memorials continue to grow, especially at Union Square Park, where thousands come to congregate, grieve, and celebrate--the statue George Washington in Union Square overtaken as a shrine for peace, memory and the United States, thousands of candles are added, a metal sculpture of the American flag and 2500 roses planted in the shape of the World Trade Center towers. John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) Hangar 17 holds the remains of the Twin towers including Column 1001-B of the south tower the last column to be removed. The Stars and Stripes appeared on front stoops, flagpoles, cars, clothing, and on public buildings across the United States.

A statue in honor of fallen firefighters, commissioned in 2000 by the Firefighters Association of Missouri, was in New York City en route to Missouri at the time of the attack. It was since donated to New York City in honor of the hundreds of firefighters who lost their lives in the collapse of the World Trade Center.

On October 4, Reverend Brian Jordan, a Franciscan priest, blessed two beams at the crash site which had formed a cross spontaneously, and then had been welded together by iron-workers.

On October 13, the North Charleston Coliseum raised a special banner featuring the retired number of Mark Bavis, who was on United Airlines Flight 175. Bavis had played for the ECHL's South Carolina Stingrays, and his retired number hangs in a special corner, independently from the Stingrays' retired numbers (#14, #24) and awards banners (1997 and 2001 Kelly Cup Championships), with the years he played for the team (1994-96), the date of his death (September 11, 2001), and an American flag.

On March 11, the damaged Sphere sculpture formerly in the World Trade Center was dedicated by the city as a temporary memorial in Battery Park City.

Beginning March 11, the Tribute in Light project, 88 searchlights placed next to the site of the World Trade Center created two vertical columns of light, lasting until April 14. This tribute is now made every year on September 11.

Also in New York City, a commuter bus that was heavily damaged in the collapse of the World Trade Center was repainted with a special American flag scheme on its sides and rear (as shown to the right).

On September 11, 2002, representatives from over 90 countries came to Battery Park City as New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg lit an eternal flame to mark the first anniversary of the attacks. Leading the dignitaries were Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan, Bloomberg, and Secretary of State Colin Powell.

Although people from around the world were lost, communities in the New York City area lost many citizens in the attack. Colts Neck, New Jersey lost five members of their tiny community and commissioned sculptor Jim Gary, a lifetime resident, to create a memorial garden featuring his central sculpture of brass, copper, and stained glass—where each victim is represented by a colorful butterfly among plants in a water garden. The contemplative garden was dedicated at the municipal center of Colts Neck on November 10, 2002.

Similar permanent memorials are being constructed around the world, and a list of them is being updated as new ones are completed. 911 Memorials is a site that features the newest as they are added and provides a directory of each by community, state, and country in the column on the right of the site page.

On September 11, 2006 at 9:15am, Russian artist Zurab Tsereteli dedicated his sculpture, "To the Struggle Against World Terrorism" (also commonly known as "Tear of Grief", a 10-story high tribute to be erected on the Jersey City waterfront across the Hudson River from where the World Trade Center towers fell. The sculpture is an official gift of the Russian government to commemorate the victims of the attacks. That evening, the Empire State Building went dark for 11 minutes at 9:11 p.m. in remembrance.

The Pentagon Memorial was opened on September 11, 2008, the seventh anniversary of the attacks.[9] It is a 1.93-acre (7,800 m2) park, with 184 benches, in memory of the 184 victims at The Pentagon and on American Airlines Flight 77, arranged according to the victims' ages, ranging from 3 to 71. Construction on the Pentagon Memorial began on June 15, 2006. An additional memorial inside the Pentagon, along with a chapel, was constructed at the site of the attack when the building was rebuilt in 2002. [10] [11]

At Shanksville, a permanent Flight 93 National Memorial is in planning stages, which will include a sculpted grove of trees forming a circle around the crash site, bisected by the plane's path, while wind chimes will bear the names of the victims.[12] A temporary memorial is located 500 yards (457 m) from the Flight 93 crash site near Shanksville.[13] New York City firefighters donated a memorial to the Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company. It is a cross made of steel from the World Trade Center and mounted atop a platform shaped like the Pentagon. [14] It was installed outside the firehouse on August 25, 2008.[15]

The Texas State Cemetery has a monument to the September 11 victims.

The Official Pennsylvania Memorial to the Victims of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks ( The Garden of Reflection 9-11 Memorial was created to remember and honor our loved ones and all 2,973 killed on September 11, 2001. It is situated in Memorial Park amid the natural beauty of Historical Bucks County farmland in Lower Makefield Township, PA.

The Memorial designed by Yardley architect Liuba Lashchyk AIA invites us on a walking Memorial Journey symbolizing “After Darkness…Light”. This Memorial Journey leads from sorrowful reminders of tragedy and grief towards luminous symbols of Hope, Peace and Celebration of Life.

The dedication and support of so many individuals, organizations and volunteers has made this Memorial Garden possible. We thank you. We hope the spirit and symbolism of the Garden of Reflection will endure in your hearts as it endures in ours.

The LeRoy Homer Foundation ( The LeRoy W. Homer Jr. Foundation, established in memory of United 93 First Officer LeRoy Homer by his widow Melodie Homer. The Foundation awards up to three scholarships annually from applicants ages 16 - 23 residing within the United States as citizens or resident aliens. The scholarship program is funded through private donations, corporate contributions and grant requests. The Foundation also promotes awareness of aviation as a career choice, with a focus on providing information to women and minorities who are underrepresented in the US pilot population.

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